Types of soil to grapes

Whether the composition of the soil affects or not the sensorial characteristics of the final wine is an extensive debate not without controversy.
Like almost everything in the wine world (and in life), there is no exact truth, because the soil on which a vine is planted is one of the many factors that influence the wine's results. In fact, the famous term “terroir” refers to such characteristics as soil type, composition (quantity and variety of nutrients), cultural practices, climate, altitude or yeasts, which affect Particularities of a wine.
The heterogeneity of the Spanish geography offers, by chance, a wide range of soils: From the typical rolling of Rueda, passing through the sands of Toro, the limestone outcrops of Ribera del Duero, the licorella of the Priorat area or the Albariza from Jerez until reaching the granitic soil of Rías Baixas or the volcanic of the vineyards of Tenerife.
That a land is sandy, slate, granite or clay is not a peculiarity that alone can describe a wine, although it is true that it has an important influence. In this post we wanted to collect some of the most common types of soils in our winemaking environment and their impact on wine:

Sandy soils: A faster ripening is usually achieved. The wines are very aromatic but with a slightly lower tannic load (they are less structured in the mouth).
Clay soils: They have more capacity to retain nutrients and water. They offer elegant wines, with structure, since the ripening cycles are longer and a greater load of polyphenols is obtained during ripening.
Granite soils: The wines that come from this type of soil have mineral aromas, light salty touches and good acidity.
Slatey soils: They are poor soils, with little organic matter, characteristic for expressing mineral aromas in the wines. In the Priorat (Catalonia) they call 'llicorella' the disintegration of the slate in the form of sheets.
Calcareous soils: The result is wines with good alcoholic content, with low acidity and a very good quality. On the contrary, excess limestone and a poorly chosen pattern can cause important imbalances for the correct development of the plant.

These differences in the soils of each of our plots greatly enrich our wines. Each of them is harvested and processed separately, which allows us to obtain a wide "color palette" with which to draw each of our wines.
As mentioned above, it is not only necessary to take into account the type of soil - which is normally composed of different percentages of each of the elements - but also multiple factors, such as pH or the presence of certain minerals.
When a terrain is somewhat sour, wines will be delicate, with little coloring matter, not excessive structure, but elegant.
Loose and fluffy soils are of better quality than those compacted or caked, because they slow down the growth and strengthening of the roots of the vine.
As for the minerals, the calcium helps to maintain a good structure of the soil and favors the absorption of nutrients by the plant; Magnesium participates in the composition of chlorophyll, influencing the amount of sugar assimilated by the grape; Potassium promotes respiration and activates the growth, favoring the accumulation of sugars in the berry, in addition to influencing the pH of the soil is also a factor.
On the other hand, nitrogen increases the vigor and, therefore, the productivity of a strain; As well as potassium, which also favors the aromas in the wine, although an excess can be detrimental to the plant and the quality of the grape.
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